Trade agreements in Asia-Pacific tend to be more flexible and less detailed than those in Europe or North and South America. Most PTAs in the Asia-Pacific region do not have a supranational institution to monitor implementation and resolve disputes. ASEAN has a secretariat to coordinate and facilitate ASEAN-related activities, but the secretariat does not enforce rules. The implementation of the ERC is overseen by the Australia-New Zealand Secretariat for Business, between the foreign and trade ministries of the two countries. The rules of origin are also applied mainly at the national level. Most ATPs in the Asia-Pacific region also use informal consultations and negotiations to resolve disputes20. The rules of origin range from relatively simple and liberal rules of origin in the cases of AFTA and THE ERC to more complex and product-specific in Singapore-U.S. cases. Singapore and Japan Agreements23 Most agreements allow for cumulative rules of origin to determine the total local content, bilateral or regional, of a given product. The more liberal rules of origin are considered a general rule that the local content of the product must be 40-50%. In contrast, NAFTA has adopted complex product-specific rules of origin, which represent more than 200 pages of the agreement.
Some bilateral agreements, such as. B Singapore-U.S. and Singapore-Japan, use product-specific rules of origin, although they are more flexible than NAFTA. For example, Singapore-U.S. The risk of free trade can check the rules of origin of textiles and clothing in the event of possible harmonization under the WTO agreements on rules of origin. As with the schedule of tariff reductions, there is always special treatment for “special sectors” (see Table 5). This article describes the spread of Asia-Pacific EDPs over the past five years, examining their characteristics and implementation and assessing the potential impact in the near future. The paper focuses on East Asia, although some trade agreements in North and South America and South Asia are mentioned for comparison. Each trade agreement has a list of exceptions and, in some agreements, the list is long and complex. All agreements provide for sectors considered sensitive by the parties to the negotiations. Agriculture is generally treated with special treatment and, in many cases, is totally excluded from the scheme.
The overall partnership between Singapore and Japan excludes certain products from agriculture and fisheries, although Singapore does not have large agricultural or fishing sectors. Many agreements also exclude certain non-agricultural products. The agreement between Korea and Chile, for example, excludes certain items such as refrigerators and washing machines.